Dating of the flood

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The youngest OSL age of 0.19 ± 0.02 ka at the depth of 0.5 m shows that the residual OSL age, if any, must be much smaller than this amount, and the well comparison between OSL ages and AMS C ages further confirm that the flood deposits could be well bleached before buried and consequently the OSL ages are not overestimated.

The source of sediments from ground surface in the mountain regions in the upper stream and the special characteristic of quartz might have contributed to the sufficiently bleaching.

His successful efforts to tame the river led to his divine right to leadership, the first Chinese dynasty, the Xia, and the beginnings of Chinese civilization.

When the waters abated and the ark rested on one of the mountains of Ararat, Noah sent forth a raven and doves, and when the second dove returned with an olive-leaf in her mouth, while the third dove did not return, it was proof that the ground was dry. We are too tall; and, moreover, we could close up with our feet [which were of monstrous size] the springs from below." (Being descendants of the "sons of God," they were of immense stature; see Fall of Angels; Giants). The Deluge fragment discovered by Scheil is dated in the reign of Ammizadugga, one of the last kings of the first dynasty of Babylon, and may be ascribed to about 2100 It was found at Sippar—where the Deluge is placed by Berosus—and represents the local form of the legend current in that city during this early period. 40) that these Babylonian legends were first made known about the Tell el-Amarna period among the original Canaanite inhabitants of Palestine, from whom they passed to the Israelites when the latter settled in the land.

Flood is a kind of serious nature disaster, so studies on the palaeofloods are the keys to understand the mechanisms and their relationships with climatic change, geomorphologic evolution and civilization evolution are of great importance.

The floods happened frequently in the Yihe-Shuhe River Basin in history, forming the alluvial plain and affecting the evolution of the ancient civilization.

On leaving the ark, Noah built an altar and offered sacrifice, which God accepted, promising to curse the earth no more. In fact, they resorted to these tactics; but God heated the water, and their feet and the flesh of their bodies were scalded (Pirḳe R. Tablet seven of this fragment mentions Pêr-napishtim, and tablet eight speaks of Atrakhasis; both occur in the account which was found by Smith. Others assume later Aramean or Phenician mediation (see Gunkel, "Genesis," pp. In the Babylonian, and especially in the Hebrew, tradition there is the blending of two still earlier legends, the one of the destruction of mankind, wholly or in part, by the punitive judgment of the divine powers, owing to man's wickedness—a legend of a character similar to that of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, or the story of Philemon and Baucis in classic lore; the other, that of a flood as such, either local or universal.

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The extraordinary floods happened at 4.1–3.8 ka, 3.3–3.0 ka and 0.9–0.1 ka correspond to the global abrupt climatic events, demonstrating that the extreme floods might be caused by or be parts of these climatic instabilities in monsoonal China.

In July 1993, the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) completed drilling down 3,053.44 meters through the ice and 1.55 meters beyond into the underlying bedrock.

From this was recovered the deepest ice core record to date.

At that time, some 4,000 years ago, human civilization was beginning to blossom.

The Earth's human population stood at about 27 million people, less than the 2014 population of Tokyo.

To save them Noah was bidden by God to build a huge chest or ark, in which they were hidden during the Flood. But their plea was in vain; even while Noah was engaged in building the ark the wicked made sport of him and his work, saying: "If the Flood should come, it could not harm us. According to another version (Midrash ha-Gadol, ed. 145), Noah was asked what kind of flood was to come upon the wicked: if a flood of fire, they had a fire-animal, 'alitha, the name of which would act as a spell against fire; if of water, they had sheets of iron wherewith to cover the earth so that no water could come through from below; but in case the waters descended from above, they had another contrivance by which to escape—the "'aḳob" or "'aḳosh" (sponge; Sanh. The sins of the "men of the generation of the Flood" (Sanh. They were proud and therefore shameless, parading the earth in a state of absolute nudity (Tanna debe Eliyahu, xxxi.). The character and actions of Bêl and of Ea, as described here, appear united in , whose account, of course, is strictly monotheistic, purer, and loftier. It is, however, more correct to assume with Zimmern ("Biblische und Babylonische Urgesch." p.

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